Bronchial adenoma is a rare type of cancer that starts in the mucous glands and ducts of the lung airways (bronchi) or windpipe (trachea), and in the salivary glands. Although the word “adenoma” means a noncancerous tumor, most bronchial adenomas are cancer and can spread to other parts of the body.

Essentials of Diagnosis:-

• Insidious onset of dry cough with localised wheeze.
• Haemoptysis in 25 to 30 per cent cases.
• Evidence of bronchial obstruction leading to collapse,bronchiectasis.
• Bronchoscopy and biopsy or exploratory thoracotomy confirms the diagnosis. As the tumour does not exfoliate, sputum examination is not helpful.

Investigation:-

-Biopsy removes a small piece of tissue. A specialist checks the sample under a microscope to see if it’s cancer.

-X-rayuses low doses of radiation to make images of structures inside your body. A chest X-ray can look for a tumor in your lungs.

-MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging,uses powerful magnets and radio waves to make pictures of organs and structures inside your body. It can show the size of the tumor. You may get a liquid to drink, or into a vein before the test. This contrast dye will help create a clearer picture.

Treatment:-

-The ideal treatment is lobectomy. Fewer noninvasive pedunculated adenomas may be removed by bronchoscopy but serious bleeding may occur.

Which treatment you get depends on your:-

  • Type and stage of cancer
  • Age
  • Health
  • Preferences

Options include:

Surgery. This is the main treatment for bronchial adenomas. The surgeon will remove the cancer and some of the tissue around it. Lymph nodes around the tumor may also be removed to stop the disease from spreading.

Radiation.This treatment uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells. It can relieve symptoms and help you feel better. You also can get it after surgery to kill any cancer cells left behind.

Most often, you’ll get radiation from a machine outside your body. Another option is to have tiny radioactive pellets implanted near the tumor. A few days later, your doctor will take them out.

Radiation can cause side effects such as:

  • Fatigue
  • Skin redness in the area where you got treatment
  • Sore throat and mouth
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath

These problems should go away once you stop the treatment.

Chemotherapy – Chemo uses drugs to kill cancer cells all over your body. You get it through a vein (IV) or as a pill. You may get chemo along with other treatments if your cancer has spread. Or, you might get it after surgery to kill any cancer cells left behind.

Possible side effects from chemo include:

  • Fatique
  • Nausea & vomit
  • Hair loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Increased risk of infection

Immunotherapy.This treatment uses medicine to boost your immune system’s ability to find and destroy cancer. Immunotherapy can shrink tumors or stop their growth.

Targeted therapy.These treatments look for proteins or genes that are unique to your cancer, and that help it grow. Then it targets those substances to stop the cancer from spreading.

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