REGIONAL ENTERITIS(Crohn’s Disease)

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A chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the lining of the digestive tract.Crohn’s disease can sometimes cause life-threatening complications. Essentials of Diagnosis:- General measures • Insidious onset.• Intermittent bouts of diarrhoea, low grade fever.• Pain,

RECTAL POLYP

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Polyps are abnormal growths rising from the lining of the large intestine (colon or rectum). The rectum is the last 12 inches of the large intestine. Polyps may be flat (sessile) or develop on a

PRIMARY BILLIARY CIRRHOSIS

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Primary biliary cholangitis, previously called primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic disease in which the bile ducts in your liver are slowly destroyed. Bile is a fluid made in your liver. It aids with digestion

PEPTIC ESOPHAGITIS

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Esophagitis caused by the reflux of acid gastric juices through an incompetent sphincter at the junction of the esophagus with the stomach is now recognized as a common cause of upper abdominal and thoracic symptoms

NODULAR CIRRHOSIS

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Anorexia, weight loss, anaemia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea.• Palpable, firm liver with blunt edges.• Ascites.• Amenorrhoea, impotence, sterility.• Spider naevi, palmar erythema.• Splenomegaly, jaundice in some cases.• Gynaecomastia, testicular atrophy,

NAUSEA AND VOMITING

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Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but rather are symptoms of many different conditions, such as infection (“stomach flu”), food poisoning, motion sickness, overeating, blocked intestine, illness, concussion or brain injury, appendicitis and migraines. Simple

IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)

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An intestinal disorder causing pain in the stomach, wind, diarrhoea and constipation.The cause of irritable bowel syndrome isn’t well understood. A diagnosis is often made based on symptoms. Essentials of Diagnosis:- -Abdominal pain.-Altered bowel function,

INTESTINAL TUBERCULOSIS

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Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) is rare and can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or as a primary infection with no pulmonary symptoms. It typically presents with vague abdominal symptoms, making it difficult

HICCUP

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Involuntary spasms of the diaphragm, usually short-lived and not a sign of something serious. It is a transient phenomenon and may occur as manifes- tation of many diseases such as neuroses, CNS disorders, GIT disorders,

HERPETIC STOMATITIS

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Herpetic stomatitis is a viral infection of the mouth that causes sores and ulcers. These mouth ulcers are not the same as canker sores, which are not caused by a virus. Essentials of Diagnosis:- •

GASTRIC ULCER

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A sore that develops on the lining of the oesophagus, stomach or small intestine.Ulcers occur when stomach acid damages the lining of the digestive tract. Common causes include the bacteria H. Pylori and anti-inflammatory pain

DUODENAL ULCER

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A sore that develops on the lining of the oesophagus, stomach or small intestine.Ulcers occur when stomach acid damages the lining of the digestive tract. Common causes include the bacteria H. Pylori and anti-inflammatory pain

DUMPING SYNDROME

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Dumping syndrome is a condition that can develop after surgery to remove all or part of your stomach or after surgery to bypass your stomach to help you lose weight. The condition can also develop

CONSTIPATION

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When a person passes less than three bowel movements a week or has difficult bowel movements. Patient should be considered to be constipated only if defaecation is explainably delayed for days or if stools are

CHRONIC GASTRITIS

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Any of a group of conditions in which the stomach lining is inflamed.Causes include infection, injury, regular use of pain pills called NSAIDs and too much alcohol. Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Asymptomatic or vague non-descriptive

CHRONIC CHOLECYSTITIS

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • History of frequent attacks of biliary colic (i.e. right upper quadrant abdominal pain referred to right scapula).• Flatulant dyspepsia with fatty food intolerance.• Non-functioning gall bladder on IV cholecysto-graphy or presence

CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Sudden, severe, right upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating to scapula.• Nausea, vomiting, fever, jaundice, leucocytosis.• History of such recurrent attacks persisting for hours.• Chills with gram-ve shock in cases of acute

BOTULISM

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Sudden onset of diplopia, dry mouth, dysphagia, dyspnoea, cranial nerve paralysis, muscle weakness progressing to respiratory paralysis.• History of recent ingestion of home canned or unus- ual foods.• Toxin demonstrated in

ANAL FISSURE

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- Acute pain during and after defecation. Bright red blood with stool. Tendency for constipation due to fear of pain. Treatment:--Mineral oil and stool softners daily. Mild laxative- Syp Cremaffin 2-3 tea spoon

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