HICCUP

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Involuntary spasms of the diaphragm, usually short-lived and not a sign of something serious. It is a transient phenomenon and may occur as manifes- tation of many diseases such as neuroses, CNS disorders, GIT disorders,

HERPETIC STOMATITIS

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Herpetic stomatitis is a viral infection of the mouth that causes sores and ulcers. These mouth ulcers are not the same as canker sores, which are not caused by a virus. Essentials of Diagnosis:- •

HAEMORRHOIDS(PILES)

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Swollen and inflamed veins in the rectum and anus that cause discomfort and bleeding.Haemorrhoids are usually caused by straining during bowel movements, obesity or pregnancy. Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Rectal bleeding and discomfort following defaeca-

GASTRIC ULCER

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A sore that develops on the lining of the oesophagus, stomach or small intestine.Ulcers occur when stomach acid damages the lining of the digestive tract. Common causes include the bacteria H. Pylori and anti-inflammatory pain

DUODENAL ULCER

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A sore that develops on the lining of the oesophagus, stomach or small intestine.Ulcers occur when stomach acid damages the lining of the digestive tract. Common causes include the bacteria H. Pylori and anti-inflammatory pain

DUMPING SYNDROME

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Dumping syndrome is a condition that can develop after surgery to remove all or part of your stomach or after surgery to bypass your stomach to help you lose weight. The condition can also develop

DIVERTICULAR DISEASE OF COLON (Diverticulosis)

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A condition in which small, bulging pouches develop in the digestive tract.It’s common in people over the age of 40. Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Intermittent cramping and left lower abdominal pain.• Constipation or constipation alternating

CONSTIPATION

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When a person passes less than three bowel movements a week or has difficult bowel movements. Patient should be considered to be constipated only if defaecation is explainably delayed for days or if stools are

CHRONIC GASTRITIS

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Any of a group of conditions in which the stomach lining is inflamed.Causes include infection, injury, regular use of pain pills called NSAIDs and too much alcohol. Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Asymptomatic or vague non-descriptive

CHRONIC CHOLECYSTITIS

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • History of frequent attacks of biliary colic (i.e. right upper quadrant abdominal pain referred to right scapula).• Flatulant dyspepsia with fatty food intolerance.• Non-functioning gall bladder on IV cholecysto-graphy or presence

CHOLERA

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Sudden onset of explosive diarrhoea.• Stool if grey, turbid without any faecal odour, bloodor pus (rice water stool).• Rapid development of dehydration, acidosis, hypo-kalaemia, hypotension.• Positive stool culture and agglutination of

CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Sudden, severe, right upper quadrant abdominal pain radiating to scapula.• Nausea, vomiting, fever, jaundice, leucocytosis.• History of such recurrent attacks persisting for hours.• Chills with gram-ve shock in cases of acute

CARCINOMA OF STOMACH

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• Anaemia, asthenia and anorexia in patients over 40 years of age.• Palpable abdominal mass.• Occult blood in stool.• Gastroscopic and X-ray abnormality with positivecytological examination.• The less common manifestations include post-prandial distress simulating peptic

CARCINOMA OF LIVER

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- Hard,enlarged,tenderliverwithorwithoutpalpable nodules. Symptoms of long-standing cirrhosis with sudden deterioration in the condition of the patient. Bloody ascites.• Anaemia, cachexia, hepatic bruit or friction rub. • Primary site of malignancy (stomach), colon orother

CANDIDIASIS (THRUSH)

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Creamy-white curd like patches surrounded by erythema.• Pain, fever and lymphadenopathy in some cases. Treatment:- -Saturated solution of sodabicarb for mouth wash.-One per cent gentian violet to be painted three timesdaily

CANCER OESOPHAGUS

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Progressive dysphagia even to liquids.• Anaemia, weight loss. • Chest pain—Unrelated to eating implies local exten- sion of tumour.• Barium swallow shows irregular, frequently annular space occupying lesions. Treatment:- -Irradiation is

CANCER COLON

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Blood in the faeces, anaemia, asthenia.• Palpable colonic mass (especially in ascendingcolon).• Altered bowel function, i.e. progressively increasingconstipation (left colon) or diarrhoea.• Sigmoidoscopic and X-ray evidence of theneoplasm. Treatment:- -Surgical resection

BOTULISM

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Sudden onset of diplopia, dry mouth, dysphagia, dyspnoea, cranial nerve paralysis, muscle weakness progressing to respiratory paralysis.• History of recent ingestion of home canned or unus- ual foods.• Toxin demonstrated in

APPENDICITIS

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Pain and tenderness in right iliac fossa with signs of peritoneal irritation (muscle guard and +ve Rovsing’s sign).• Low grade fever, vomiting, constipation.• Polymorphonuclear leucocytosis.• Rectal tenderness is common in pelvic

APHTHOUS STOMATITIS

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Essentials of Diagnosis:- • Shallow ulcers with erythematous base, covered with pseudomembrane (greyish exudate).• Often painful and usually recurrent.• May be associated with inflammatory bowel disease,prolonged fevers, infectious mononucleosis history of emotional stress. Treatment:- -Avoid

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